Immigrant investor programmes (IIPs) have mushroomed around the world in recent years. Focusing on the EU context, where each Member State has at least one legal mechanism for granting residence or citizenship rights in exchange for investment, this paper has a twofold objective. First, it seeks to develop a typology of IIPs on the grounds of investment amounts and status obligations. Second, the paper applies this typology to map and examine IIPs in the EU. Rather than looking in detail at the politics of investment-based migration in each country, this study identifies general conditions across states that enable different types of IIPs to develop.
Publication details and link to source: Jelena Džankić, Immigrant investor programmes in the European Union (EU), Journal of Contemporary European Studies, 2018