CITLAW Indicators

CITLAW indicators measure the degree of inclusion and freedom of choice for the target group of a legal provision. For birthright, naturalisation and conditions for renunciation the absence of a provision or the most restrictive conditions result in an indicator score of 0, whereas unconditional entitlements or the most inclusive provisions get a score of 1. For involuntary loss through withdrawal or automatic lapse, the absence of a provision results in a score of 1 and the most extensive state powers to withdraw citizenship in a score of 0.

Basic indicator scores are calculated on the basis of a list of substantive and procedural requirements for each mode of acquisition or loss using both additive and weighting formulas.

CITLAW indicators are also aggregated at different levels in order to analyse more general features of citizenship laws. Formulas for calculating combined indicators are included in the pop-up descriptions in the chart menus. The 6 highest level CITLAW indicators that are calculated using all 45 basic indicators are: ius sanguinis, ius soli, residence-based ordinary naturalisation, naturalisation on specific grounds, voluntary renunciation and withdrawal/lapse.

CITLAW indicators have been calculated for 42 European states for 2011 and 2016. The first instalment of CITLAW indicators is based on citizenship on 31 December 2011. The second instalment of CITLAW indicators is based on citizenship laws on 1 January 2016. In the future we plan to offer also series for past years that allow to analyse trends over time.

We use the following labels for average indicators for 2011:

  • EUROPE for all 42 states, EU 27 for all 2011 member states of the EU, and non-EU 15 for countries that were not EU member states on 31 December 2011.

Since Croatia has become a member state of the EU in 2013, for 2016, the labels are as follows:

  • EUROPE for all 42 states, EU 28 for all 2016 member states of the EU, and non-EU 14 for countries that were not EU member states on 1 January 2016.

The CITLAW indicators have been developed by Rainer Bauböck (European University Institute), Iseult Honohan and Kristen Jeffers (University College Dublin) in consultation with Maarten Vink (University of Maastricht) and Thomas Huddleston (MPG). Nathalie Rougier has provided research assistance in coding the CITLAW indicators for 2016.

Coding of CITLAW indicators is based on an assessment of legal provisions in national citizenship laws. If we learn that we have coded an indicator based on incomplete or wrong information, we will correct the coding as soon as possible. This means that from time to time there will be changes in the CITLAW scores. Please check the masterfile on this page to see the date of the latest changes. If you need to know which specific codes have changed compared to a previous version, please get in touch with the GLOBALCIT coordinator.

Please contact us also if you think you have found an error in our coding or if you have questions about how we have applied the coding rules specified in our explanatory paper.

The indicators are made available freely for non-commercial use by the general public. We ask users to acknowledge its source when using the data. Please cite the current version as follows:

EUDO CITIZENSHIP Observatory (2016). CITLAW Indicators. Version 2.0, San Domenico di Fiesole: European University Institute.

Current version:

Archived versions: