GLOBALCIT Citizenship Law Dataset – Modes of Acquisition of Citizenship

The GLOBALCIT Citizenship Law Dataset includes information on the different ways in which citizenship can be acquired and lost across the world. The Dataset is organized around a comprehensive typology of modes of acquisition and loss of citizenship, which outlines, in a systematic way, 28 ways in which citizenship can be acquired and 15 ways in which citizenship can be lost. For each ‘mode’ of acquisition and loss of citizenship the typology outlines a standardized ‘target person’ which allows comparing rules applicable to similar groups across countries.

The GLOBALCIT Citizenship Law Dataset covers information on laws in force in 191 states on 1 January of the three years 2020 – 2022.

The online database allows two types of searches:

  • List all modes of acquisition of citizenship in one country: select the country you are interested in.
  • Compare a mode of acquisition of citizenship across countries: select the mode of acquisition you are interested in and compare across all or selected countries.

Target Person
Article in law

Codebook and data repository:

A codebook outlining the comparative methodology, categorical coding scheme and the sources of the Dataset, as well as exportable files with country identifiers and quantitative codes to facilitate descriptive or statistical analysis, are available here

The information searchable in this online database is archived in a data file coding the presence and type of provision regulating the acquisition of citizenship in a country in a particular year, row-ordered by country (iso3), year and mode, and citizenship law variables with qualitative descriptions and quantitative codes in columns (‘data_v2.0_country_year_mode_acq.csv’, with variable labels in first row).

Additional longitudinal data for the years 1960 – 2022 are available for one acquisition mode (mode A06b, coding whether a renunciation requirement is in place for residence-based acquisition) in the data repository (file ‘data_v2.0_country-year’ available in .xlsx or .csv format).

How to cite:

Vink, Maarten, Luuk van der Baaren, Rainer Bauböck, Jelena Džankić, Iseult Honohan and Bronwen Manby (2023). GLOBALCIT Citizenship Law Dataset, v2.0, Country-Year-Mode Data (Acquisition). Global Citizenship Observatory,